Swarms Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The seismic swarm 50 km SW of Santorini, at the end of the fault zone. Die ungewöhnliche Schwarm von Erdbeben SW von Santorini auf die wichtigsten. Swarms and Network Intelligence in Search. Autoren: Altshuler, Yaniv, Pentland, Alex, Bruckstein, Alfred M. Vorschau. Presents recent research on swarms and. A perfectly suitable solution was found even for the sensitive wet savannah with its swarms of mosquitoes at night: The five ecologically built round houses were. In this talk I present recent research in swarm robotics, the discipline that studies robotic systems composed of swarms of robots tightly. taverneschinckel.be | Übersetzungen für 'swarm' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen.
taverneschinckel.be | Übersetzungen für 'swarm' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. In this talk I present recent research in swarm robotics, the discipline that studies robotic systems composed of swarms of robots tightly. Such swarm activity is characteristic of Turkish seismicity, and the activity frequently a), show such migration for the Swarms in Central Anatolia, but the.
Swarms Wir empfehlenErweiterte Suche. Norwegisch Wörterbücher. The book is intended for researchers and engineers in the fields of swarms systems and autonomous drones. Der Kleinbus mit der Grundfläche eines Mini Cooper verfügt über neuartige Stehsitze, bietet daher viel Swarms für den Ps3 Spiele Beste sowie drei Passagiere mit Gepäck und ist voll mit dem Internet vernetzt. Foren, Beste Spielothek in RitterstraГџe finden, Blogs und vieles mehr. EN DE. There is no group leader; rather, coordination occurs spontaneously as a consequence of the interactions between individuals. Autor: Marco Dorigo. Italienisch Wörterbücher.
The Stalwarts hoped to swarm the convention and force a challenge to the delegate roll. While he was doing that, Marion Barry was still holding court for a swarm of reporters back towards the stage.
Normally an air accident investigation would involve a swarm of hard-nosed engineers and scientists poring over wreckage.
The parasites and harpies which M. Kenniston, unable to turn from the life-or-death business of threading the swarm , heard the Jovian fighting furiously.
The cause of her peevishness was a swarm of intensely active flies. Peterkin was quite safe, hugging the bottom of the shell crater under a swarm of hornets.
This is a notable factor in the Central American migratory bottleneck. This concentration of birds during migration can put species at risk.
Some spectacular migrants have already gone extinct, the most notable being the passenger pigeon. During migration the flocks were a mile 1.
The term "shoal" can be used to describe any group of fish, including mixed-species groups, while "school" is used for more closely knit groups of the same species swimming in a highly synchronised and polarised manner.
Fish derive many benefits from shoaling behaviour including defence against predators through better predator detection and by diluting the chance of capture , enhanced foraging success, and higher success in finding a mate.
Fish use many traits to choose shoalmates. Generally they prefer larger shoals, shoalmates of their own species, shoalmates similar in size and appearance to themselves, healthy fish, and kin when recognised.
The "oddity effect" posits that any shoal member that stands out in appearance will be preferentially targeted by predators.
This may explain why fish prefer to shoal with individuals that resemble them. The oddity effect would thus tend to homogenise shoals.
One puzzling aspect of shoal selection is how a fish can choose to join a shoal of animals similar to themselves, given that it cannot know its own appearance.
Experiments with zebrafish have shown that shoal preference is a learned ability, not innate. A zebrafish tends to associate with shoals that resemble shoals in which it was reared, a form of imprinting.
Other open questions of shoaling behaviour include identifying which individuals are responsible for the direction of shoal movement.
In the case of migratory movement, most members of a shoal seem to know where they are going. In the case of foraging behaviour, captive shoals of golden shiner a kind of minnow are led by a small number of experienced individuals who knew when and where food was available.
Radakov estimated herring schools in the North Atlantic can occupy up to 4. That's several billion fish in one school. Between May and July huge numbers of sardines spawn in the cool waters of the Agulhas Bank and then follow a current of cold water northward along the east coast of South Africa.
This great migration, called the sardine run , creates spectacular feeding frenzies along the coastline as marine predators, such as dolphins, sharks and gannets attack the schools.
Most krill , small shrimp-like crustaceans , form large swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,—60, individual animals per cubic metre.
The largest swarms are visible from space and can be tracked by satellite. By moving vertically through the ocean on a hour cycle, the swarms play a major part in mixing deeper, nutrient-rich water with nutrient-poor water at the surface.
It has been found that the deeper they go, the more they reduce their activity,  apparently to reduce encounters with predators and to conserve energy.
Later work suggested that swimming activity in krill varied with stomach fullness. Satiated animals that had been feeding at the surface swim less actively and therefore sink below the mixed layer.
Krill with empty stomachs were found to swim more actively and thus head towards the surface. This implies that vertical migration may be a bi- or tri-daily occurrence.
Some species form surface swarms during the day for feeding and reproductive purposes even though such behaviour is dangerous because it makes them extremely vulnerable to predators.
When disturbed, a swarm scatters, and some individuals have even been observed to moult instantaneously, leaving the exuvia behind as a decoy.
The algorithm is based on three main factors: " i movement induced by the presence of other individuals ii foraging activity, and iii random diffusion.
Copepods are a group of tiny crustaceans found in the sea and lakes. Many species are planktonic drifting in sea waters , and others are benthic living on the ocean floor.
Copepods are typically 1 to 2 millimetres 0. Although like other crustaceans they have an armoured exoskeleton , they are so small that in most species this thin armour, and the entire body, is almost totally transparent.
Copepods have a compound, median single eye, usually bright red, in the centre of the transparent head. Copepods also swarm. For example, monospecific swarms have been observed regularly around coral reefs and sea grass , and in lakes.
Swarms densities were about one million copepods per cubic metre. Typical swarms were one or two metres in diameter, but some exceeded 30 cubic metres.
Copepods need visual contact to keep together, and they disperse at night. Spring produces blooms of swarming phytoplankton which provide food for copepods.
Planktonic copepods are usually the dominant members of the zooplankton , and are in turn major food organisms for many other marine animals.
In particular, copepods are prey to forage fish and jellyfish , both of which can assemble in vast, million-strong swarms. Some copepods have extremely fast escape responses when a predator is sensed and can jump with high speed over a few millimetres see animated image below.
Photo: School of herrings ram feeding on a swarm of copepods. Animation showing how herrings hunting in a synchronised way can capture the very alert and evasive copepod click to view.
Planktonic copepods are important to the carbon cycle. Some scientists say they form the largest animal biomass on earth.
Because of their smaller size and relatively faster growth rates, however, and because they are more evenly distributed throughout more of the world's oceans, copepods almost certainly contribute far more to the secondary productivity of the world's oceans, and to the global ocean carbon sink than krill , and perhaps more than all other groups of organisms together.
The surface layers of the oceans are currently believed to be the world's largest carbon sink, absorbing about 2 billion tons of carbon a year, the equivalent to perhaps a third of human carbon emissions , thus reducing their impact.
Many planktonic copepods feed near the surface at night, then sink into deeper water during the day to avoid visual predators.
Their moulted exoskeletons, faecal pellets and respiration at depth all bring carbon to the deep sea. Many single-celled organisms called phytoplankton live in oceans and lakes.
When certain conditions are present, such as high nutrient or light levels, these organisms reproduce explosively. The resulting dense swarm of phytoplankton is called an algal bloom.
Blooms can cover hundreds of square kilometres and are easily seen in satellite images. Individual phytoplankton rarely live more than a few days, but blooms can last weeks.
Scientists have attributed swarm behavior to plants for hundreds of years. In his book, Phytologia: or, The philosophy of agriculture and gardening , Erasmus Darwin wrote that plant growth resembled swarms observed elsewhere in nature.
Roots, in particular, display observable swarm behavior, growing in patterns that exceed the statistical threshold for random probability, and indicate the presence of communication between individual root apexes.
The primary function of plant roots is the uptake of soil nutrients, and it is this purpose which drives swarm behavior.
Plants growing in close proximity have adapted their growth to assure optimal nutrient availability. This is accomplished by growing in a direction that optimizes the distance between nearby roots, thereby increasing their chance of exploiting untapped nutrient reserves.
The action of this behavior takes two forms: maximization of distance from, and repulsion by, neighboring root apexes.
Plant responses are often complex, integrating multiple inputs to inform an autonomous response. Additional inputs that inform swarm growth includes light and gravity, both of which are also monitored in the transition zone of a root's apex.
Horizontal growth of roots, whether in response to high mineral content in soil or due to stolon growth, produces branched growth that establish to also form their own, independent root swarms.
Swarming also describes groupings of some kinds of predatory bacteria such as myxobacteria. Myxobacteria swarm together in "wolf packs", actively moving using a process known as bacterial gliding and keeping together with the help of intercellular molecular signals.
A collection of people can also exhibit swarm behaviour, such as pedestrians  or soldiers swarming the parapets [ dubious — discuss ].
In Cologne, Germany, two biologists from the University of Leeds demonstrated flock like behaviour in humans. The group of people exhibited similar behavioural pattern to a flock, where if five percent of the flock changed direction the others would follow.
If one person was designated as a predator and everyone else was to avoid him, the flock behaved very much like a school of fish. The mathematical modelling of flocking behaviour is a common technology, and has found uses in animation.
Flocking simulations have been used in many films  to generate crowds which move realistically. Tim Burton's Batman Returns was the first movie to make use of swarm technology for rendering, realistically depicting the movements of a group of bats using the boids system.
The Lord of the Rings film trilogy made use of similar technology, known as Massive , during battle scenes. Swarm technology is particularly attractive because it is cheap, robust, and simple.
An ant-based computer simulation using only six interaction rules has also been used to evaluate aircraft boarding behaviour. An airline system developed by Douglas A.
Lawson uses swarm theory, or swarm intelligence —the idea that a colony of ants works better than one alone.
Each pilot acts like an ant searching for the best airport gate. As a result, the "colony" of pilots always go to gates they can arrive and depart quickly.
The program can even alert a pilot of plane back-ups before they happen. Swarm behaviour occurs also in traffic flow dynamics, such as the traffic wave.
Bidirectional traffic can be observed in ant trails. Herd behaviour in marketing has been used to explain the dependencies of customers' mutual behaviour.
The Economist reported a recent conference in Rome on the subject of the simulation of adaptive human behaviour. A "swarm-moves" model was introduced by a Florida Institute of Technology researcher, which is appealing to supermarkets because it can "increase sales without the need to give people discounts.
The application of swarm principles to robots is called swarm robotics , while swarm intelligence refers to the more general set of algorithms.
Partially inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers are modelling the behaviour of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying.
Each robot is quite simple, but the emergent behaviour of the swarm is more complex. The largest swarms so far created is the robot Kilobot swarm.
Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin a mission, a swarm can continue even if several robots fail. This could make them attractive for space exploration missions, where failure is normally extremely costly.
Military swarming is a behaviour where autonomous or partially autonomous units of action attack an enemy from several different directions and then regroup.
Pulsing , where the units shift the point of attack, is also a part of military swarming. Military swarming involves the use of a decentralized force against an opponent, in a manner that emphasizes mobility, communication, unit autonomy and coordination or synchronization.
Merely because multiple units converge on a target, they are not necessarily swarming. Siege operations do not involve swarming, because there is no manoeuvre; there is convergence but on the besieged fortification.
Nor do guerrilla ambushes constitute swarms, because they are "hit-and-run". Even though the ambush may have several points of attack on the enemy, the guerillas withdraw when they either have inflicted adequate damage, or when they are endangered.
In the U. Office of Naval Research released a video showing tests of a swarm of small autonomous drone attack boats that can steer and take coordinated offensive action as a group.
Salps arranged in chains form huge swarms. People swarming through an exit do not always behave like a fluid. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Collective behaviour of a large number of usually self-propelled entities of similar size. For other uses, see Swarm disambiguation.
See also: Collective animal behaviour. Main article: Agent-based model in biology. See also: Agent-based models , Intelligent agent , Autonomous agent , and Quorum sensing.
See also: Self-organization and Biological organisation. Main article: Emergence. Main article: Stigmergy. Main article: Swarm intelligence.
Main article: Ant colony optimization algorithm. Main article: Self-propelled particles. Main article: Particle swarm optimization.
Linear cluster of Ampyx priscus. Play media. See also: Ant colony , Ant colony optimization algorithm , Ant mill , and Ant robotics.
Main articles: Bees algorithm and Swarming honey bee. See also: Marching locusts. Main article: Insect migration. See also: Lepidoptera migration.
Main article: Flocking behaviour. See also: Flock birds , Bird landings , Bird strike , Mixed-species foraging flock , and Mobbing behaviour.
Main article: Bird migration. See also: Reverse migration birds. Main article: Shoaling and schooling. See also: Eel life history. Main article: Fish migration.
See also: Sardine run and Salmon run. See also: Hunting copepods. Swarms of jellyfish also prey on copepods. See also: Swarming motility and Microbial intelligence.
See also: Herd , Herd behaviour , and Animal migration. See also: Crowd and Crowd simulation. Main article: Swarm robotics. See also: Ant robotics and Robotic materials.
Main article: Swarming military. A swarm of migrating herrings. A swarm of ladybirds. A swarm of earthquakes. Design and Control of Swarm Dynamics.
SpringerBriefs in Complexity First ed. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General. See more words from the same century From the Editors at Merriam-Webster.
A Drudge of Lexicographers Presents Thesaurus Entries near swarm swaps sward swards swarm swarmed swarming swarms. Accessed 3 Aug. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.
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